Path: | README.txt |
Last Update: | Sun Jan 28 18:43:21 EST 2007 |
Kevin C. Olbrich, Ph.D.
kevin.olbrich@gmail.com
Project page: ruby-units.rubyforge.org/ruby-units
Many technical applications make use of specialized calculations at some point. Frequently, these calculations require unit conversions to ensure accurate results. Needless to say, this is a pain to properly keep track of, and is prone to numerous errors.
The ‘Ruby units’ gem is designed so simplify the handling of units for scientific calculations. The units of each quantity are specified when a Unit object is created and the Unit class will handle all subsequent conversions and manipulations to ensure an accurate result.
This package may be installed using:
gem install ruby-units
unit = Unit.new("1") # constant only unit = Unit.new("mm") # unit only (defaults to a value of 1) unit = Unit.new("1 mm") # create a simple unit unit = Unit.new("1 mm/s") # a compound unit unit = Unit.new("1 mm s^-1") # in exponent notation unit = Unit.new("1 kg*m^2/s^2") # complex unit unit = Unit.new("1 kg m^2 s^-2") # complex unit unit = Unit("1 mm") # shorthand unit = "1 mm".to_unit # convert string object unit = object.to_unit # convert any object using object.to_s unit = U'1 mm' unit = u'1 mm' unit = '1 mm'.unit unit = '1 mm'.u unit = '1/4 cup'.unit # Rational number unit = '1+1i mm'.unit # Complex Number
Many methods require that the units of two operands are compatible. Compatible units are those that can be easily converted into each other, such as ‘meters’ and ‘feet’.
unit1 =~ unit2 #=> true if units are compatible
Method: | Comment |
Unit#+():: Add. only works if units are compatible Unit#-():: Subtract. only works if units are compatible Unit#*():: Multiply. Unit#/():: Divide. Unit#**():: Exponentiate. Exponent must be an integer, can be positive, negative, or zero Unit#inverse:: Returns 1/unit Unit#abs:: Returns absolute value of the unit quantity. Strips off the units Unit#ceil:: rounds quantity to next highest integer Unit#floor:: rounds quantity down to next lower integer Unit#round:: rounds quantity to nearest integer Unit#to_int:: returns the quantity as an integer
Unit will coerce other objects into a Unit if used in a formula. This means that ..
Unit("1 mm") + "2 mm" == Unit("3 mm")
This will work as expected so long as you start the formula with a Unit object.
Units can be converted to other units in a couple of ways.
unit1 = unit >> "ft" # => convert to 'feet' unit >>= "ft" # => convert and overwrite original object unit3 = unit1 + unit2 # => resulting object will have the units of unit1 unit3 = unit1 - unit2 # => resulting object will have the units of unit1 unit1 <=> unit2 # => does comparison on quantities in base units, throws an exception if not compatible unit1 === unit2 # => true if units and quantity are the same, even if 'equivalent' by <=> unit.to('ft') # convert unit1 + unit2 >> "ft" # converts result of math to 'ft' (unit1 + unit2).to('ft') # converts result to 'ft'
Any object that defines a ‘to_unit’ method will be automatically coerced to a unit during calculations.
Units will display themselves nicely based on the preferred abbreviation for the units and prefixes. Since Unit implements a Unit#to_s, all that is needed in most cases is:
"#{Unit.new('1 mm')}" #=> "1 mm"
The to_s also accepts some options.
Unit.new('1.5 mm').to_s("%0.2f") # => "1.50 mm". Enter any valid format string. Also accepts strftime format U('1.5 mm').to_s("in") # => converts to inches before printing U("2 m").to_s(:ft) #=> returns 6'7" U("100 kg").to_s(:lbs) #=> returns 220 lbs, 7 oz
Time, Date, and DateTime objects can have time units added or subtracted.
Time.now + "10 min".unit
Several helpers have also been defined. Note: If you include the ‘Chronic’ gem, you can specify times in natural
language. 'min'.since('9/18/06 3:00pm') 'min'.before('9/18/08 3:00pm') 'days'.until('1/1/07') '5 min'.from(Time.now) '5 min'.from_now '5 min'.before_now '5 min'.before(Time.now) '10 min'.ago
Durations may be entered as ‘HH:MM:SS, usec’ and will be returned in ‘hours’.
'1:00'.unit #=> 1 h '0:30'.unit #=> 0.5 h '0:30:30'.unit #=> 0.5 h + 30 sec
If only one ":" is present, it is interpreted as the separator between hours and minutes.
[U('0 h')..U('10 h')].each {|x| p x}
works so long as the starting point has an integer scalar
All Trig math functions (sin, cos, sinh, hypot…) can take a unit as their parameter. It will be converted to radians and then used if possible.
Ruby-units makes a distinction between a temperature (which technically is a property) and degrees of temperature (which temperatures are measured in).
Temperature units (i.e., ‘tempK’) can be converted back and forth, and will take into account the differences in the zero points of the various scales. Differential temperature (e.g., ‘100 degC’.unit) units behave like most other units.
'37 tempC'.unit >> 'tempF' #=> 98.6 tempF
Ruby-units will raise an exception if you attempt to create a temperature unit that would fall below absolute zero.
Unit math on temperatures is fairly limited.
'100 tempC'.unit + '10 degC'.unit #=> '110 tempC'.unit '100 tempC'.unit - '10 degC'.unit #=> '90 tempC'.unit '100 tempC'.unit + '50 tempC'.unit #=> exception '100 tempC'.unit - '50 tempC'.unit #=> '50 degC'.unit '50 tempC'.unit - '100 tempC'.unit #=> '-50 degC'.unit '100 tempC'.unit * [scalar] #=> '100*scalar tempC'.unit '100 tempC'.unit / [scalar] #=> '100/scalar tempC'.unit '100 tempC'.unit * [unit] #=> exception '100 tempC'.unit / [unit] #=> exception '100 tempC'.unit ** N #=> exception '100 tempC'.unit >> 'degC' #=> '100 degC'.unit
This conversion references the 0 point on the scale of the temperature unit
'100 degC'.unit >> 'tempC' #=> '-173 tempC'.unit
These conversions are always interpreted as being relative to absolute zero. Conversions are probably better done like this…
'0 tempC'.unit + '100 degC'.unit #=> '100 tempC'.unit